USGS Water Science School: What Is Hydrology And What Do Hydrologists Do? Greater access to clean water, refined sanitation systems, and modern farming methods are just some ways innovation will save us. You cannot download interactives. The Masai people have longer limbs that help them lose body heat in the warm climate of East Africa. The Maasai are famous for their striking red robes and rich traditional culture. In turn, Bantu people adopted skills from the communities they encountered, including animal husbandry, or raising animals for food.This exchange of skills and ideas greatly advanced Africa’s cultural landscape, especially in the eastern, central, and southern regions of the continent. Rates of Deforestation & Reforestation in the U.S. Crucial Environmental Problems Affecting the Ocean, Long- & Short-Term Effects of Global Warming, Smithsonian National Museum: Climate Effects On Human Evolution, Fundamentals Of Physical Geography: Scope Of Physical Geography, Western Oregon University: Introduction To Geomorphology, National Resources Conservation Services: Soil Quality Concepts. Most Renewable Electricity ProducedLesotho (100%, hydropower), Population Density87 people per square kilometer, Largest WatershedCongo River (4 million square kilometers/1.55 million square miles), Highest ElevationMount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (5,895 meters/19,341 feet), Largest Urban AreaCairo, Egypt (15.6 million people). Eventually, they migrated to the savannas of the southeastern and southwestern parts of the continent, including what is today Angola and Zambia.The Bantu Migration had an enormous impact on Africa’s economic, cultural, and political practices. Dunn, Margery G. (Editor). This restructuring process brought out cultural tensions, causing deep ethnic conflict that continues today. Additional conditions with that may occur in conjunction with geographic tongue include allergies, emotional stress, juvenile diabetes, … Soil carries out several functions that profoundly impact human activity. Water is found above, on, and under the ground. These countries are: Morocco, Western Sahara (Morocco), Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Chad, Niger, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central Africa Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea and the island countries of Cape Verde, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, and Comoros.Cultural GeographyHistoric CulturesThe African continent has a unique place in human history. Mbuti leaders argue that their people were killed, forced into slavery, and even eaten during the Congo Civil War, which officially ended in 2003. Common characteristics include: 1. Ancient Egyptian records show that the Bambuti have been living in the same area for 4,500 years. Most slaves were taken from the isolated interior of the continent. Future IssuesAfrica’s most pressing issues can be framed through the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Melissa McDaniel People may move temporarily to more fertile areas to provide for their families, especially if they live in poorer countries like Kenya. Andrew Turgeon, Mary Crooks, National Geographic Society They claimed their land and grazing rights were consistently being trespassed by nomadic Arab groups. National Geographic News: 5-Country Conservation Area Would Aid Africa's Largest Elephant Herd, National Geographic News: Global Warming May Unleash ‘Sand Seas’ in Africa, National Geographic News: Jason Carter Discusses South Africa, National Public Radio: Protecting African Lions—Hunters Turned Guardians, PBS Frontline World: South Africa: The Play Pump, National Geographic News: Surviving Darfur—African Refugee Life, National Geographic Events: Giant Traveling Map of Africa. spreading of a species into a new habitat or ecosystem, and establishing a healthy population there. Darfurians are mostly “black” Africans, meaning their cultural identity is from a region south of the Sahara. It was unified around 3100 B.C.E. farmer who constantly or seasonally herds livestock to fresh pastures. In the simplest cases, the system involves a single host species such as humans and the particular pathogen that causes a disease; in more complex cases, multiple pathogens and/or hosts, as well as arthropod vectors, may be involved. All humans need water to survive, and depend on regular rainfall and other sources of clean water for drinking and agriculture. What does citizenship represent? Egypt was a vast kingdom of the ancient world. Africa is sometimes nicknamed the "Mother Continent" due to its being the oldest inhabited continent on Earth. Geotechnical Project Development, Reports, and Support for Design-Build Projects Chapter 22 ... For projects that may include landslides, rockfall areas, and debris flows, provide adequate information to evaluate the feasibility of various stabilization or ... • Site and soil conditions that may affect … The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. Tuaregs are often called the “blue men of the Sahara” for the blue-colored bubus they wear in the presence of women, strangers, and in-laws. Tuareg men also cover their face with the cheche as a formality when meeting someone for the first time. (1922-1991) large northern Eurasian nation that had a communist government. Tim Gunther, Illustrator, Jeannie Evers, Emdash Editing Young Maasai men between the ages of 15 and 30 are known as moran, or “warriors.” Moran live in isolation in unpopulated wilderness areas, called “the bush.” During their time as moran, young Maasai men learn tribal customs and develop strength, courage, and endurance.Even though some remain nomadic, many Maasai have begun to integrate themselves into the societies of Kenya and Tanzania. What does it mean to be a citizen? matter that needs to be processed into a product to use or sell. European business owners benefitted from trade in these natural resources, while Africans labored in poor conditions without adequate pay. They change over time in line with the economic and business cycles , … These plates are constantly sliding past and colliding into one another. Variation in care is an issue across all fields of medicine and, broadly speaking, can be partitioned into variation in the distribution of underlying disease processes, variation in care delivery, variation in cost, and variation in outcomes (). Historic Issues The great kingdoms of West Africa developed between the 9th and 16th centuries. Geography - Geography - Physical geography and physical systems: As a consequence of these changes, physical geography moved away from inductive accounts of environments and their origins and toward analysis of physical systems and processes. Millions of slaves were also transported within the continent, usually from Central Africa and Madagascar to North Africa and the European colony of South Africa.Millions of Africans died in the slave trade. roadworks and track work). one of the seven main land masses on Earth. You can geographically segment a market by area, such as … Today, most of the population living in these regions is descended from Bantu migrants or from mixed Bantu-indigenous origins.The third massive human migration in Africa was the African slave trade. National Geographic Headquarters A range of factors may affect the accuracy, completeness, suitability and timeliness of the Website. The continent includes the islands of Cape Verde, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, and Comoros.Africa’s physical geography, environment and resources, and human geography can be considered separately.The origin of the name “Africa” is greatly disputed by scholars. The majority of these groups blend traditional customs and beliefs with modern societal practices and conveniences. to adopt the cultural traits of another group or community. The social factors that affect a firm include the values, attitudes, beliefs, opinions and life-styles of persons in the firm’s external environment, as developed from demographic, cultural, religions, educational and ethnic conditioning. The Kingdom of Mali’s great wealth contributed to the creation of learning centers where Muslim scholars from around the world came to study. The United Nations says up to 300,000 people have died as a result of war, hunger, and disease. Political geography is the internal and external relationships between various governments, citizens, and territories.Historic IssuesThe great kingdoms of West Africa developed between the 9th and 16th centuries. Even more lost their lives on the treacherous voyage across the Atlantic Ocean.The impacts of slavery on Africa are widespread and diverse. transport and communication. One of the chief areas of conflict is the struggle between sedentary and nomadic groups over control of resources and land.The conflict in Sudan’s Darfur region, for example, is between nomadic and sedentary communities who are fighting over water and grazing rights for livestock. Important environmental factors that may affect development of plant diseases and determine whether they become epiphytotic include temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture, soil pH, soil type, and soil fertility. Like other forces in the … religion based on the words and philosophy of the prophet Mohammed. process by which living organisms obtain food or nutrients, and use it for growth. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, more than 15 million Africans were transported across the Atlantic Ocean to be sold as slaves in North and South America. The Kingdom of Ghana (Ghana Empire) became a powerful empire through its gold trade, which reached the rest of Africa and parts of Europe. All 192 members of the United Nations and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to meet the goals by 2015. Leaders within Africa and outside it will need to seek greater international cooperation for this to become a reality. to move from one place or activity to another. Historians do not agree on why Bantu-speaking people moved away from their homes in West Africa’s Niger Delta Basin. installations location and condition, and other conditions which may affect his tender price and the carrying out of the Works. Communities and infrastructure were so damaged by the slave trade that they could not be rebuilt and strengthened before the arrival of European colonizers in the 19th century. The Sudanese government is dominated by Arabs, people from North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The legacy of colonialism haunts Africa today. system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit. But if the interest rate on loan increase cash flow in country decrease and res… While the appearance of geographic tongue is unusual and may be alarming if someone has not experienced it before, the condition is completely benign. group of armed, ordinary citizens who are called up for emergencies and are not full-time soldiers. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. Colonialism forced environmental, political, social, and religious change to Africa. Largely overlooked are how geographic conditions may affect … study of the natural features and processes of the Earth. type of tropical grassland with scattered trees. These goals are: 1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; 2) achieve universal primary education; 3) promote gender equality and empower women; 4) reduce child mortality rates; 5) improve maternal health; 6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; 7) ensure environmental sustainability; 8) develop a global partnership for development. The standard of living in North and South America—built on agriculture, industry, communication, and transportation—would be much lower if it weren’t for the hard, forced labor of African slaves. Geographic tongue, also known by several other terms, a condition of the mucous membrane of the tongue, usually on the dorsal surface. The United Nations is currently sponsoring talks between Morocco and a Western Sahara rebel group called the Polisario Front, which supports independence. As humans have migrated across the planet, they have had to adapt to all the changing conditions they were exposed to. person who is owned by another person or group of people. a system of spiritual or supernatural belief. She or he will best know the preferred format. Key goals include doubling food yields by 2012, halving the proportion of people without access to adequate water supply and sanitation, and providing universal access to critical nutrition.Scholars, scientists, and politicians believe climate change will negatively affect the economic and social well-being of Africa more than any other continent. Sustainability Policy |  In Africa, Islam and Christianity grew with colonialism. Lasting for 1,500 years, the Bantu Migration involved the movement of people whose language belonged to the Kongo-Niger language group. In geography, boundaries separate different regions of Earth. system of organization or government where the people decide policies or elect representatives to do so. imaginary line around the Earth, another planet, or star running east-west, 0 degrees latitude. A Presentation from the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) New Inroads to Child Health (NICHe) Conference on Stress Response and Child Health in Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 18 to 20 May 2012. For example, nearly the entire population of Egypt is concentrated around the delta of the Nile River because the rest of the country is an arid desert. Maysa Phares/CC-BY 2.0 Geography affects culture through topographical features such as mountains or deserts as well as climate, which can dictate options for clothing, shelter and food. Levels of infrastructure – e.g. The main factors affecting economic development include. Regions in Africa continue to fight for their political independence. In 2003, the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), groups from Darfur, attacked government targets in Sudan’s capital, Khartoum. Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. The players and the stage for zoonotic diseases. person who flees their home, usually due to natural disaster or political upheaval. These features include vegetation, climate, the local water cycle, and land formations. (1989, 1993). practice of raising livestock for human use, such as food or clothing. The Maasai migrate throughout East Africa and survive off the meat, blood, and milk of their cattle. Rising temperatures have caused precipitation patterns to change, crops to reach the upper limits of heat tolerance, pastoral farmers to spend more time in search of water supplies, and malaria and other diseases to spread throughout the continent. Select from these educational resources to teach middle school students more … Widely believed to be the “cradle of humankind,” Africa is the only continent with fossil evidence of human beings (Homo sapiens) and their ancestors through each key stage of their evolution. Palomar University Anthropology Department: Adapting To Climate Extremes, University of California Museum Of Anthropology: Plate Tectonics Animation, United States Geological Survey: Water Cycle Diagram, United States Geological Survey: Plate Tectonics Map, Effect of Human Activities on the Environment, Deforestation Impact on Australia's Ecosystems. increase in the average temperature of the Earth's air and oceans. Developed countries, not Africa, are the world’s largest producers of carbon emissions. severe acts of violence supported directly or indirectly by the government or other authority, usually against groups of people. Thousands of African Union-United Nation peacekeepers remain in the region. A physical boundary is a naturally occurring barrier between two or more areas. From the 1880s to the 1900s, almost all of Africa was exploited and colonized, a period known as the “Scramble for Africa.” European powers saw Africa as a source of raw materials and a market for manufactured goods. Water is purified by evaporation into the atmosphere, from where it falls back to land and the oceans through rainfall. Geographic Variation in Kidney Disease Care and Outcomes. Other common constraints on development are high economic poverty, hunger, high mortality rates, unsafe water supplies, poor education systems, corrupt governments, war, and poor sanitation. Geography. Economic conditions refer to the state of the economy in a country or region. In this context, development is a process of change that affects people's lives. Geographers are especially interested in migration as it relates to the way goods, services, social and cultural practices, and knowledge are spread throughout the world.Two other migration patterns, the Bantu Migration and the African slave trade, help define the cultural geography of the continent.The Bantu Migration was a massive migration of people across Africa about 2,000 years ago. Also called the transatlantic slave trade. This human movement, or migration, plays a key role in the cultural landscape of Africa. Nomadic pastoralists are people who continually move in order to find fresh grasslands or pastures for their livestock. These plates are constantly sliding past and colliding into one another. to prepare and nurture the land for crops. Songhai kings expanded trade routes, set up a new system of laws, expanded the military, and encouraged scholarship to unify and stabilize their empire. Arctic-dwelling Inuit adapted by storing more body fat and increasing metabolic rates. Physical boundaries include oceans, cliffs, or valleys. Diane Boudreau set of sounds, gestures, or symbols that allows people to communicate. Africa has an array of diverse ecosystems, from sandy deserts to lush rain forests. While Africans suffered greatly during the slave trade, their influence on the rest of the world expanded. Christianity was spread through the work of European missionaries, while Islam consolidated its power in certain undisturbed regions and urban centers. Africa, the second-largest continent, is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean. Modern ranching and wheat cultivation are becoming common. These include the Australopithecines, our earliest ancestors; Homo habilis, our tool-making ancestors; and Homo erectus, a more robust and advanced relative to Homo habilis that was able to walk upright. For example, market segments may identify a particular age group, such as baby boomers (born 1946-1964) or millennials (born 1981-1996), that … Citizenship is the legal recognition of belonging to a specific nation, state, or commonwealth. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. This finding implies that a region with unfavorable geographical conditions may still have lower crop yields despite investments in road and population. He has previously written for YoDerm, a dermatology-related start-up as a copywriter writing on various acne-related topics, drawing from his experience in biology and research. The Darfurians were mostly Christians, while the Sudanese government is mostly Muslim. infectious disease caused by a parasite carried by mosquitoes. They say it addresses the effects of climate change after they occur, rather than creating programs to prevent global warming, the current period of climate change. These skills included growing crops and forging tools and weapons from metal. Privacy Notice |  scientist who studies the chemistry, behavior, and purposes of DNA, genes, and chromosomes. They first moved southeast, through the rain forests of Central Africa. In fact, some people may not even realize they have the condition until it is noticed during an exam such as a routine dental cleaning. status of having very little money or material goods. A political boundary is an imaginary line separating one political unit, such as a country or state, from another. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. The Allies were led by the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. conditions that surround and influence an organism or community. Geneticists are interested in the Bambuti for this reason. Erin Sprout The International Criminal Court in The Hague has issued an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity. promotion of hygiene, health, and cleanliness. In 2009, 22 of 24 nations identified as having “Low Human Development” on the U.N.’s Human Development Index were located in Sub-Saharan Africa. change in heritable traits of a population over time. Plate movements can affect the availability of water by disrupting rivers and they disturb land formations that humans have settled on, like an earthquake ravaging a major city. The SLA and JEM were from different religious and cultural backgrounds than the government of Sudan. Economic development requires a degree of political stability, investment and mixture of public and private initiatives to increase economic potential. The harsh climate of the Sahara and the Sahel has influenced Tuareg culture for centuries. Geographic conditions may affect development indirectly by influencing institutional arrangements. the end result of two different sources of input. Many hunter-gatherer communities were assimilated, or adopted, into the more technologically advanced Bantu culture. A higher return on investment will attract investors. These skills allowed Africans to cultivate new areas of land that had a wide variety of physical and climatic features. Bantu migrants introduced many new skills into the communities they interacted with, including sophisticated farming and industry. Important European colonizers included Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Italy. having to do with the buying and selling of goods and services. Africans were inspired by their service in the Allies’ forces and by the Allies’ commitment to the rights of self-government. Disease transmission systems are, at heart, sets of interacting species. 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