FGT 363/2 = A.A.V.V. FGT 671/6 = ’Ba’ ra ba rGyal mtshan dpal bzang (1310–1391). gNas is located in the vicinity of sKyid grong, in Mang yul and is the birthplace of Rab ’byams pa Byams pa phun tshogs (1503–1581),17 a disciple of both lHa btsun and rGod tshang ras chen. FGT 657/4 = rGod tshang ras chen (1482–1559). The fourth one was printed between 1555 and 1581; however, since it was edited by rGod tshang ras chen, I tend to think that it was produced between 1555 and 1560, possibly soon after this latter master’s death. as well as the production of Buddhist xylographs. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. We do not know the exact location of Glang phug, which was presumably situated in the La ’de/’debs Valley. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. In my opinion, this is also true for the Tibetan printing history. 1a–35b). When a Woman Become a. 60  Cf. 8) mDzo lhas 1. sKyes mchog gi zhus lan thugs kyi snying po zab mo’i gter mdzod (1540, questions and answers, bka’ brgyud pa).97 NGMPP E2518/9 = Yang dgon pa rGyal mtshan dpal (1213–1258). FGT 1466 = ’Ba’ ra ba rGyal mtshan dpal bzang po (1310–1391). 9  On this master, see Clemente 2009; Clemente 2014b; Clemente 2015; Clemente (in press a); Diemberger and Clemente 2013. New Delhi: Institut d’Asie. 1a–38a). 53  Cf. De Rossi Filibeck, Elena. Cutillo, Bryan, and Kunga Rinpoche. On this work, see also Clemente (in press c); Ehrhard 2000a, 87. Proceedings of the Conference held in Hamburg, May 15–18 2013. Per Kvaerne, 205–18. FGT 671/5 = ’Ba’ ra ba rGyal mtshan dpal bzang (1310–1391). The first section provides general information on printing houses and their production, based on an examination of several colophons of xylographs from the Gung thang area collected by the University of Cambridge in collaboration with the British Library within the AHRC project entitled “Transforming Technologies and Buddhist Book Culture: The Introduction of Printing and Digital Text Reproduction in Tibetan Societies.”1 The second part discusses issues related to the extent of, 1  The project is funded by the British Art and Humanities Research Council (2010–2015) and led by Professor Uradyn Bulag. Bod kyi shing spar lag rtsal gyi byung rim mdor bsdus. 1954. Storyline. “Zusatzbemerkung zu Helmut Eimer Beitrag.” In Vividharatnakaraṇḍaka: Festgabe für Adelheid Mette. “The Five Colours of Art: Non-invasive Analysis of Pigments in Tibetan Prints and Manuscripts.” In Tibetan Printing: Comparisons, Continuities, and Change. See also Schaeffer 2011, 476. “Titre et colophons d’ouvrages non canoniques tibétains. “Western Tibet: Historical Introduction.” In Tabo: A Lamp for the Kingdom. 1a–39a). Catalogue of the Tucci Tibetan Fund in the Library of IsIAO 2. NGMPP L194/13, L970/3, E2518/5, E693/4 (it is difficult to read); U rgyan rDo rje 1976, 1–35. Religious Dynasty. 2009. Quintman, Andrew. In From. NAK 743 no. 28. dPal ldan bla ma dam pa mkhas grub lha btsun chos kyi rgyal po’i rnam mgur blo ’das chos sku’i rang gdangs. Xylograph kept in the Tucci Tibetan Collection, IsIAO Library, Rome (ff. rJe btsun mi la ras pa rnam thar rgyas par phye pa mgur ’bum. It is my hope that the Library will soon be reopened and that this significant cultural heritage will be accessible to all scholars in African and Asian studies again. This is the result of a collaboration with the TBRC team. “What Do the Childhood and Early Life of Gtsang smyon Heruka tell Us about His Bka’ brgyud Affiliation?” In Mahāmudrā and the bKa’-brgyud Tradition. 70  Cf. 69  Cf. History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. 63  Cf. FGT 586 = sDe snod ’dzin pa Ngag dbang Chos kyi grags pa (1572–1641). See also PBP 2007, 346. Pictures of these places will soon appear on the interactive map built for the above-mentioned projects. Ed. Eds. Secondary Sources Bacot, Jacques. “Life and Works of Bodong Chokley Namgyal.” The Tibet Journal 30/3: 89–100. Pho brang po ta lar tshags pa’i bka’ brgyud pa’i gsung ’bum dkar chag. See also my entry in the database of the above-mentioned projects. Diemberger, Hildegard, and Clemente, Michela. See also Sernesi 2013, 205. Lhasa: Bod ljongs bod yig dpe rnying dpe skrun khang. New York: Columbia University Press. List of identified xylographs (under the name of the printing house in which they were produced) with information on dating, literary genre and religious school: 1) Brag dkar rta so 1. 33  See Brokaw and Kornicki 2013, xix; Diemberger 2012, 33. On this work, see also Ehrhard 2000a, 37. Reproduced from Prints from Ancient Western Tibetan Blocks. His master was gTsang smyon Heruka (1452–1507),10 an outstanding bka’ brgyud pa bla ma who also spent some time at the Gung thang court, being the teacher of King rNam rgyal. Smith, Ellis Gene. yet relatively little is known about the specific contours of the culture of the book in Tibet, such as the roles of patronage in the production of texts, the economic and social implications of producing the massive canons of Buddhist literature on the Himalayan plateau, the position of the scribe in society, and working life in a Buddhist scriptorium” (2009, vii). rJe btsun ras chung rdo rje grags pa’i rnam thar rnam mkhyen thar lam gsal bar ston pa’i me long ye shes kyi snang ba. Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag. 42  Cf. I do not have any real conclusion because these are open questions that need further research and discussion among scholars in different fields. ———. 12  On this figure and his work, see Ehrhard 2010; Larsson 2012: 255–61; Sernesi 2007: chapt. 2010. technology. Unfortunately, we do not have significant information on the course of study in these schools; a subject that I would like to investigate in future research.21 So far I have identified twenty-three xylographs printed there, which range from 1525 to 1563. “The Royal Print of the Maṇi bka’ ’bum: Its Catalogue and Colophon.” In Nepalica-Tibetica: Festgabe für Christoph Cüppers. Further Stories and Songs of Milarepa, Yogin, Poet, and Teacher of Tibet. On this work, see also Ehrhard 2000a, 70. 57  Cf. rJe rgod tshang pa’i rnam thar rgyal thang pa bde chen rdo rjes mdzad pa la mgur chen ’gas. Nyams yig ma ṇi’i lu gu rgyud (1521, bo dong pa).64 6. This work was first printed in 1531 at Ras chung, 3. mKhas grub sha ra rab ’jam pa sangs rgyas seng ge’i rnam thar mthong ba don ldan ngo mtshar nor bu’i phreng ba shar ’dod yid ’phrog blo gsal mgul brgyan (1559, biography, bka’ brgyud pa).87 4. Halle: Beiträge zur Zentralasienforschung. Kathmandu (ff. FGT 361/4; TBRC: W1KG4473. A History of Tibetan Painting: The Great Tibetan Painters and their Traditions. 2007. FGT 1089/2; NGMPP L251/2; UL Tibetan 155.2. FGT 587. FGT 671/2. Chos, dbang rgyal mtshan, who was a close disciple of bTsun pa Chos legs, also moved there in 1511.22 It seems that the production of prints at Chab rom phug is connected with these masters and that it stopped after their death; however, this subject is still under investigation. Xylograph kept in the Tucci Tibetan Collection, IsIAO Library, Rome (ff. TY - BOOK. On this work, see also Ehrhard 2000a, 94; Ehrhard 2004a. This text became particularly significant in the political context of the 14th century when Tibet was under the control of Phag mo gru pa, who encouraged Tibetans to get back to their roots. Beijing: The China Tibetology Publishing House. 1a–9a). ———. FGT, 363/1 = A.A.V.V. FGT 361/2; TBRC: W00KG09688. The Oldest Block Print of Klong-chen Rab-’byams-pa’s Theg mchog mdzod. ———. FGT 671/4. Orna Almogi and Dorji Wangchuk. Andiast: International Institute for Tibetan and Buddhist Studies GmbH. On this work, see also Schaeffer 2011, 470; Sernesi 2011a, 201; Smith 2001, 77. Königswinter 2006. Shā kya’i dge slong rdo rje ’dzin pa chen po / na mkha’ rdo rje’i rnaṃ par thar pa ngo mtshar gsal ba’i me long (1554, biography, ’ba’ ra bka’ brgyud pa).92 2. NGMPP L194/9, L 512/8, L1219/3, L503/2, L956/8. Alessandria: Edizioni dell’Orso. Used as editio princeps it was the basis for its re-print elsewhere in Gung thang as well as in other areas of Tibet and Bhutan. Stearns, Ilze M. 1985. I would like to express my thanks to Dr. Hildegard Diemberger and Professor Franz-Karl Ehrhard for giving me the opportunity of collaborating in this project. Eds. On this work, see Clemente 2007, 124, 133–35; Clemente 2009; Clemente 2014b; Clemente (in press c); De Rossi Filibeck 2003, 331; Diemberger and Clemente 2013. NGMPP L10/22 = lHa btsun Rin chen rnam rgyal (1473–1557). ’Ba’ ra pa rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po gi rnam thar kha skong (1540, biography, bka’ brgyud pa).68, 59  Cf. 3) Kun gsal sgang po che (Gung thang): 12. This text is reproduced in Ehrhard 2000b, 211–240. On this project, see Clemente 2007; Clemente 2009, 1.2, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7; Clemente 2014b, 443–47; Clemente 2015; Clemente (in press a); Diemberger and Clemente 2013, 134–37; Larsson 2012, 229–76; Schaeffer 2009, 58–63; Schaeffer 2011; Sernesi 2011a; Sernesi (forthcoming); Smith 2001, 73–79. 6. 2009. Microfilm kept at the National Archives, Kathmandu (ff. Jean-Luc Achard, 51–66. On this work, see also De Rossi Filibeck 2003, 2. bka’ gdams rin po che’i glegs bam (1538, biography, bka’ gdams pa).77 6. Phyag rgya chen po rnal ’byor bzhi’i rim pa snying po don gyi gter mdzod. 38  Cf. This subject is under investigation and will be the topic of a future publication. 83  Cf. This will allows us to, There is a limited number of xylographs from Chab rom phug, Glang phug, Shel dkar, mDzo/’Dzo lhas, A ti sha’i chos ’khor and Khams gsum g.yul las rnam rgyal pho brang that have been analysed so far. For a translation of this work, see Guenther 1963. The transliteration of the colophon is provided in Ehrhard 2000a, 95–100. (1437–1521). Also, the search for old prints has so far been difficult because of the type of texts – classical and famous – which did not attract the same attention as rare texts. Some Notes on Tibetan Textual Criticism and the Impact of Xylography.” In Édition, éditions. Namgyal. ” the Tibet Journal 30/3: 89–100 écrit au Tibet, experienced a true blossoming of printing projects to..., 94 ; Ehrhard 2004a, 82 bdud rtsi snying po don gyi gter mdzod byang. 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